Using the traditional, time-honored way of building a hand-made boot, a welt is sewn to the vamp (toe) leather through a grooved channel on the bottom side of the inner sole. This step is done by hand using an awl and special waxed hand sewing thread. The inner sole is stitched to the vamp & welt before the arch and twelve iron mid-soles are glued and nailed on. Then the rubber outsoles are added and the soles, mid-soles, vamp, and welt are all stitched together with two rows of interlocking stitches. (The heavy Vibram® sole is glued and screwed on for extra support.) The heels are then attached and the boot is sanded and finished. A welted boot is thought to mold to the contour of your foot well and starts with a tighter fit that leads to less stretching over the lifetime of the boot.